FUTO SIWES Technical Report (Verified Samples)

Firstly, here’s history of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, FUTO. The Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) was established in 1980 at the lake Nwaebere Campus which was then the temporary site. Later in 1983, FUTO Limited was established and was placed under the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT). In 1993, the farm was re-established to be the permanent site of the university. The Farm is in three Sections which are as follows:

 

THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN THE INSTITUTION/UNIVERSITY:

  • FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE TECHNOLOGY (FAT): The function of the Fishery and Aquaculture department is processes involved in the production, processing, preservation, distribution and marketing of produce.
  • AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (AEC): AEC harbors cultivation of the soil for growing of crops and rearing of animals to produce food and other raw materials.
  • AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION (AEX): The enlightenment of upcoming learners on how to improve their agricultural systems and practices so as to enable them to be more efficient in producing more and better crops and livestock and earn more money to improve their living standards.
  • CROP SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (CST): Crop Science and Technology department is majorly on the study of production of sustainable, safe, abundant food, feed, fibre, fuel crops and their relationship with the environment we harbor.
  • ANIMAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (AST): The function of the Animal Science and Technology department is the study of implementation of more safer and advanced techniques to rear animals.
  • SOIL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (SST): SST is majorly on the aspect of improving the soil and knowing the suitable soil for each crop and plant and environment related vices.
  • FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE TECHNOLOGY (FWT): The function of the Forestry and Wildlife department is to conduct purposeful basic and basic applied research in the areas of land use, forestry and wildlife resource management.

 

ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT IN THE FARM RESEARCH

 

FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE ASPECT: From the history of Fishery and Aquaculture, Mr. Fan Li was the first man to document it. Fishery is simply the study of aquatic animals and its environs. It is the controlled cultivation and production of fish. Fishery commenced in 2500BC in Egypt, before it spread to China. Fishery is broadly divided into inland and upland sections. Inland Fishery is the one that are found in the natural environment. It is been carried out in the marine environment, which comprises the seas and oceans. However, some fishing also occurs inland, in the freshwater of lakes and rivers. Freshwater accounts for only around 2% of all water on Earth and most of this are locked up as ice or snow in the Polar Regions. Therefore, only a limited amount of water is available for inland fisheries compared to the vast resources of the oceans. Inland fisheries are the commercial fishing operations taking place in freshwater. Some of this fishing is capture fishing, where the fish living naturally in a body of water are harvested.

The other type of inland fishery is the fish farm, where fish are raised in tanks or ponds, generally for human consumption. Fish farming is a type of aquaculture, which is a broad term referring to the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants or animals in water for human use. Over 90% of all inland fisheries are found in developing countries with the majority being located in China, India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. Most of the catch of an inland fishery is consumed locally. Many inland fisheries are small operations and it is difficult to capture accurate data for the amount of commercial activity. The Overseas Development Institute quotes a figure of 9 million tons (8.2 million tons) caught from 1999, but the actual amount of fish caught might be much higher than this. Records are not always kept and some of the fish will be for subsistence consumption rather than for sale. Upland Fishery is those fishes found in the confinement. This means that the upland fishery is the type of raising fishes in the ponds and places closer to the farmer for proper and thorough check. The Upland Fishery aspect is not as broad as the inland fishery aspect even in developed countries where it is done.

SANITATION: On the sanitation exercise of the fish pond, there was a thorough and careful checking with a proper cleaning both inside and around the fish pond. Brood stock was fed with copens of about 2mm in its size, though they are supposed to be fed with copens of 6mm or 9mm due to their sizes because the 2mm copens were made for the fingerlings. Also, other copens sizes include 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and others.

FISH CULTURE RECEPTACLES:
Earthen pots
Concrete tanks
Wooden pools
Galvanized tanks
Plastic pools

FACTORS TO BE PUT INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE ESTABLISHING A POND:
Land
Accessible road
Market closeness
Availability of water
Earthen ponds

This is done close to river banks. It must be checked for water pollution that is if the water is polluted. In earthen ponds, a flow gate is built to stop predators and ensure no escape of fishes from the pond. The wall of an earthen pond is called a dike. Vegetation: To help in cooling down atmospheric temperature. Good source of fish fry and fingerlings because the growth is affected if the fries are not from a good source. Fertilizer – Animal dung, organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Supplementary (Complementary) feed – In the case of no commercial feed, complementary feeds are used. Feeds could be produced personally. Corn and groundnut could be grinded and mixed for the feed. Fish meal is better fed to fishes than blood meals (blood in powdered form) which are occasionally used.

FEATURES OF A FISH POND
Inlet pipe: This brings water into the pond
Outlet pipe: This helps to drain water away for harvesting or when the water is contaminated. It serves for both partial and total drainage and it should be fixed at the down part of the pond wall.
Waste pipe: This takes away excess water that enters the pond to prevent over flooding that may cause the fishes to move away. The pipe should be fixed at a height of 1.6m.
River/White sand: This helps to ionize the water in the pond and create natural environment and also serves as a base for the growth of algae. White sand also helps to neutralize the effect of calcium carbonate (CaCo3) from the cement and chlorine (Cl2) from the pipe water.

ADVANTAGES OF USING A PIPE
Making use of a pipe makes it much easy for the farmer to hatch the fishes because of its closeness to the family house.
The pipe could be built closer to the famer’s family house.
It is good for relaxation.
It provides a source of revenue.
Catching the required quantity of fishes is assured.

IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING GENERALLY
Research purposes
Employment purposes
Income generation purposes
Development of rural settlements
Source of foreign exchange
Provides international cooperation

PROPER MANAGEMENT OF A FISH POND
Filling the pond with water and checking for leakages
Lining: To assure algae growth.
Fertilization
Netting: To protect them from predators
Stocking: Introduction of fingerlings in to the pond
Mortality Check: Daily activity to ensure the fishes are in good health.
Harvesting: This is done at their 4 months of age when the fishes would have gotten to 1kg. For tilapia, it is done at 6 months and above.
Post-Harvest: This is the removal of excess sand inside the pool. After post-harvest, it is left for about 5 days before introducing water.

IDENTIFICATION OF SOME FISHING GEARS:
Scopnet
Cast net
Hook and line
Gill net
Drag net
FORMULATION OF FISH-FEED
During formulation of fish feed, there are majorly two things which are put into consideration, namely:
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT
This includes the species, sizes, status and age of the fishes involved.
The Ingredient of the fish compositions are:
Moisture content
Nitrogen fixed content.
Carbohydrate group content.
Consumer content.
Fibre content.
Ash content.

PROCESSSES INVOLVED IN NUTRITION CONTENT
Distillation process
Digestion process
Titration process

CACASS ANALYSIS:
Protein source and energy source fixed ingredients. Protein sources include plant and animal sources, fish meal, poultry, blood meal, poultry after, shrimp meal. Plant protein sources include Soya bean meal, groundnut cake, and cotton seed cake. Energy sources include maize, wheat brown, rice brown, and guinea corn. Fixed Ingredient includes essential ammo acid. Essential fatty acid include Omega 10 and omega supplement include: anti biotic, bone meal, ammo salt, starch (rational and synthetic) level of good protein determine the type of fishes been formulated.

METHOD OF FORMULATING A SHIP
Piercing Method
Spear Method
Substitution Method
Simultaneous Method

3.2 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (AEC) ASPECT

Agricultural Economics section entails the practice and studying of essential farming policies, cultivation of the soil for growing of crops and rearing of animals to produce food and other raw materials.

PINEAPPLE [ANANAS COMOSUS]
Pineapple is a large juicy tropical fruit consisting of aromatic edible yellow flesh surrounded by a tough segmented skin and topped with a tuft of stiff leaves. It is a perennial crop. It is a short herbaceous plant (that means, it doesn’t grow too tall or short as well). Due to their fiber and water content, help to prevent constipation (a condition of the digestive system where an individual has hard feces that are difficult to expel) and promote regularity and a healthy digestive tract.
Pineapples are also rich in brome lain, an enzyme that helps the body digest proteins. Brome lain also reduces inflammatory immune cells, called cytokines that damage the digestive tract lining. The inedible stems are the most concentrated source of brome lain, which can be extracted and is readily available in supplement form.

ORIGIN OF PINEAPPLE
Pineapple is traced from the natives of southern Brazil and Paraguay. They spread the pineapple throughout South America, and it eventually reached the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico, where it was cultivated by the Mayas and the Aztecs. Columbus encountered the pineapple in 1493 on the leeward island of Guadeloupe. The Spanish people brought it down to West Africa and Nigeria precisely in the year 1886.

VARIETIES OF THE PINEAPPLE FRUIT
There are more than a hundred varieties of pineapples that grow in varying sizes. Pineapples are usually eaten after shaving off their spiked skin and removing the core. However, the miniature pineapples found in Thailand, and South Africa, can be eaten with the core, which is edible. Giant Kew is a large-sized variety that can weigh up to 10 kg. Some more common and interesting varieties are given below;

Sugarloaf Pineapple: The Sugarloaf pineapple, also known as “Pan de Azucar,” has a white flesh and does not have any woodiness. It weighs around 2.3 to 2.7 kg, and is sweet and juicy. Sugarloaf pineapples are usually grown in Mexico and Venezuela. The plant grows up to 5 feet with a spread of 3 to 4 feet.
Red Spanish Pineapple: The Red Spanish variety found in the countries of Central America can weigh up to 1 to 2 kgs. This variety is mainly used for export. It is pale yellow in color with a soothing fragrance and square shaped hard spiky leaves.
Queen Pineapple: This variety is grown in the Hluhluwe region of South Africa. Almost 90% of pineapples sold in the African market come from this region. Queen pineapples are less sweet, have a rich yellow flesh, crisp texture, mild flavor, and weigh up to 1.5 kg.
Smooth Cayenne Pineapple: Smooth Cayenne comes from Hawaii. Its yellow flesh has high sugar and acid content. Cayenne’s leaves are spineless and cylindrical. This variety weighs around 2.5 to 3 kg and is mainly used for canning.

THINGS TO PRACTICE WHEN GROWING PINEAPPLE
Pineapples (Ananas comosus) are hardy members of the Bromeliad family mostly cultivated in tropical regions. Pineapple growing does not require too much of expertise. The pineapple plant does not require excessive watering and fertilizers to grow well. This makes the pineapple one of the easiest fruit plants to grow.

SELECTING A HEALTHY PINEAPPLE: Visit a store and select a healthy pineapple. Ensure that the fruit that you pick does not have mold on it and has not lost all of its moisture. If a leaf that you try to pull off from the center of the pineapple comes off easily, look for another one.
SEPARATING THE SHOOT AND STIMULATING ROOT FORMATION: Take the pineapple and carefully cut the leaves just on top of it. Ensure that the stem is separated well from the flesh of the pineapple. The leaves on the outer portion of the stem should be removed leaving only around five to six leaves near the center. Two day time is all that is required for the shoot to harden and build resistance to root rot. Do not use too much water to introduce the shoot. Ensure that the leaves are not in contact with the water. Find a bright spot to keep your shoot in for a period of two weeks or till the roots develop.
PROPER PLANTING OF THE SHOOTS: Find an appropriate place to plant your shoot. Most professional gardeners recommend the use of 3-gallon pots for planting. Add approximately 3 inches of soil into this pot and push the shoot into the soil layer, making sure that the soil does not cover any part of the leaves. Such an arrangement has often proven to be ideal for the growth of pineapple plants up to a period of at least 6 months or 1 year. Remove the aged leaves from the bottom of the pot and replenish the soil layer as you observe more growth. Remember that the center of the plant has to be maintained in a dirt-free condition at all times.
PROPER PINEAPPLE SPACING: If the shoot is directly planted on the ground, maintain a spacing of at least 12 to 13 inches between the pineapple plants, and place them at an average depth of 2 to 4 inches. Note that the distance between the rows should be a minimum of 12 to 13 cm.
DO NOT OVERWATER: Pineapple plants do not require too much care. A widely followed principle among growers is to water the plants at least once a week. The water can be poured in such a way that it passes through the center of the plant; this not only helps clean out the dirt hidden there, but also supplies moisture to the newly developing roots at the base of the leaves.
USE THE RIGHT FERTILIZER: When picking a fertilizer for pineapples, go for one that is rich in nitrogen. Combining liquid fertilizer with some water would be a good way to fertilize these plants, as the retention of dry fertilizers at the center of the plant is far from beneficial for it.

IN A PINEAPPLE ORCHARD, TILLING IS DONE AS THE FARMER WISHES TO:

i ACTIVITIES EXPENSES (N)
ii Tilling/clearing 5000
iii Sucker (purchasing) 50 x 1344=67,200
iv Transport 3000
v Planting (Expenses) 4000×3=12,000

vi Palm waste (for mulching) 7000
Vii Labour to spread palm waste 2000
Viii Fertilizer 4000 (1 bag)
Ix Labour for application 2000
X Weeding (2 laborers) 4000 @2000 each
xi Harvesting of suckers (1 person, 4times) 2000 x 4 = 8000
xii Income

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PINEAPPLE
Pineapple plant aids in suppressing weeds.
Pineapple plant supplies nitrogen to the soil.
Pineapple is enriched with vitamin C.
Pineapple boosts the human eye-sight.
Pineapple aids in weight loss.

FERTILIZER
Poultry dung
N.P.K
Calcium carbonate is spread to cause uniform ripening in the pineapple.

FARM RECORDS
A farm is a production centre for agricultural purposes. This includes crops, animal husbandry, fishery and aquaculture, etc. A record is a written statement that contains a fact. Farm record is written information about day to day activities being executed in the farm.
It also shows daily information about the activities carried out in a farm at a particular time and a specific period. It also gives relevant information on farm input and output, access and liabilities, purchases and sales.

FEATURES OF FARM RECORDS:
Farm mapping: This has to do with the size of the farm and soil treatment.
Man Labour: This is the amount of hours spent in the farm. It is also called man-day.
Farm Supply: These are seedlings grown in agricultural land to germinate. A green house is where plants are nurtured before being transferred to the farm land.
Profit Maximization: Output that is maximum returns.

CHARACTERISTICS OF FARM RECORDS:
Period covered must be specified.
Format (plan) must be well defined.
It must be accurate and reliable.
Operation in the farm must b reflected in the farm record.

IMPORTANCE OF FARM RECORDS
It describes the farm history in terms of performances.
It provides the basic data needed for managerial upkeep.
It assists to know the worth of the farm.
It provides the farms quick and reliable information.
It also provides basic earning capacity.
It helps in planning, budgeting and making of decisions in the farm.
It helps to guide and control the expenditures of the farm.

TYPES OF FARM RECORDS:

PRODUCTION FARM RECORD: This is the writing down of all important activities involved in production of crops and livestock. Or the recording of quantities of inputs used in the farm or the output being obtained from the inputs used. It is further sub-divided into;
CROP FARM RECORDS: Shows the types of crops grown in the farm.
FARM RECORDS LIVESTOCK: Shows the numbers and different types of livestock in the farm, for example; cattle, sheep and goat.

FINANCIAL FARM RECORDS: Financial Farm Records deals with the monetary value of production records such as farm budget, loan and tax.

FARM ACCOUNT:
This is the financial record of what the farmer received and spent. The farm account is sub-divided into;
INCOME STATEMENT: It shows the financial position of a farm business. It is also known as trading account that comprises profit and loss which determines whether the business is in profit or loss.
BALANCE SHEET STATEMENT: It shows the capital position of a farm business at a particular time or at the end of the year.

FARM APPRAISAL:
Appraisal can simply be defined as the assessment of value of a thing. Farm appraisal can be described as the assessment of value of a particular land area. In appraising a piece of land, the first thing is to know its area and convert to hectare.

STEPS TO APPRAISE A FARM:
Firstly, identify the property.
Find out the sale of price of similar land found in the area.
Conduct a physical appraisal of the land.
Attribute a percentage value ratio to your land.
Consider the “best and highest use” of your land.

3.3 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION (AEX) ASPECT

APICULTURE DEFINITION
Apiculture can be defined as the process or act of bee keeping. Bee keeping is the art and science of keeping honey bees for man’s economic need. The following product can be gotten from bee, these are; wax, honey, bee venom.

ADVANTAGES OF BEE KEEPING
They are major insects and contributor to pollination globally.
Their Useful Products: This includes honey, bee-wax (used for the production of cosmetics, electrical insulators, candles, lipsticks etc) bee pollen, bee venom.
Royal jelly (a fertility material from bee, used to produce expensive creams, hair creams, also for fertility for human)
Its Low Cost and Income
Bees are also environmentally friendly.

BEE SMOKER

BEE HIVE
BEE KEEPING EQUIPMENT:
HIVE (the top bar hive used in FUTO).
Bee Suit
Smoker (Dry grasses are used with fire.
Clothing (Light colossus or red are used because bees are friendly with it).
Gloves.
Bee bait.
Honey presser.
Queen excluder:
Lays about 3000 eggs daily.

CONDITIONS TO CONSIDER IN SETTING UP A HIVE

The place where they are kept should be far away from noisy areas or scenes.
There should be adequate source of food.
The place should be far from swampy area.
The colony has to be under shade; that means there should be vegetation in the area.

CLASSES OF BEES
WORKER BEE: The worker bees are the ones in charge of all activities in the colony.
QUEEN BEE: They are the ones responsible for laying eggs.
Drone: Responsible for the fertilization of eggs.

HARVESTING OF BEE

Harvesting of honey can b e done every 4 weeks during the period of honey flow. This depends on the location, strength of the colony and yield of honey. Honey is ready for harvesting when the comb in a hive appears scaled and not watery. The moisture content should be about 18% before honey is due for harvest. When harvesting, the following measures have to be taken:
Only the comb with honey should be removed.
Ensure you smoke the comb a little.
Brush off the bees with a quill or a brush.
When you are done harvesting, put the bars (frame) and cover the hive.

FACTORS TO CONSIDER:
Located far from a noisy area.
Situated close to water.
Non-polluted areas.
Away from people’s home to avoid attack.
Should have good vegetation.
Should be under a shade.
Far from swampy area; that is high relative humidity because bees are hygroscopic.
Harvesting: This is done using a smoker, and just the amount needed is to be harvested.

APICULTURAL TERMS:
Apiary: A place where bee hives are kept.
Apiculturist: A scientist that practices bee keeping.
An Apiarist: An attendant.
Swarm: A place where bees are found.
Colony: When bees are found in the hive.
IMPORTANCE OF BEE PRODUCTS:
Contains hydrogen peroxide which destroys bacteria and infections.
Clears the skin and heals injuries.
Improves brain power.
Used as indicators of healthy environment.
Correct brain disorders.
Contains complete balanced diet.
Wax is store honey.
Royal jelly: To sustain the queen. It is produced by the workers especially for the queen to sustain her.
Propolis: Fight predators and diseases.

3.4 CROP SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (CST) ASPECT:

STERILIZATION OF TOP SOIL
Sterilization of the soil is usually performed to get rid of fungi, nematodes, weeds, pathogens of plant and harmful bacteria in the soil. You can sterilize garden soil and potting soil by means of heat treatment for a specific period. Soil sterilization is a standard method for organic farming. Heat and rays of the sun are used for killing soil borne microbes. Therefore, it can be tagged solar sterilization.

The following steps should be taken when sterilizing garden soil:
Get rid of those unwanted weeds and remove large debris.
Rototill the garden soil which you want to sterilize.
Cover the whole area with a transparent plastic sheet.
Leave the plastic foe at least 4 weeks period and ensure the solarization temperature is 114 Degrees Fahrenheit.

BENEFITS OF SOIL STERILIZATION:
It aids to improve the soil quality.
It aids in getting rid of harmful bacteria and fungi in the soil.
It aids in elimination of weeds.
It saves the farmer much time.

SOIL MIXTURE AND PLANTING OF CITRUS SEED IN A POLYPOT
The ratio of three (3) painter of sterilized top soil, two (2) painter of sharp soil and one (1) painter of poultry droppings i.e. 3:2:1 is required and the seed planted in a pollen bag and should be watered two times daily i.e. morning and evening. It takes seven days to emerge and in a month or two transplanting can be done.

CITRUS ESTABLISHMENT:
This is a form of Biotechnology. There are different types and species of citrus. Gummosis is a fungal disease which attacks the roots of young orange plant. It reduces the survival of orange plants. Rough lemon seeds which was discovered to be resistant to the disease is therefore used to get the root stalk and then sweet orange is budded to get orange fruits.

STEPS BEFORE PLANTING:
The soil is first considered because it has been discovered that nematodes and other harmful organisms exist on the soil. Therefore the top soil is sterilized so as to get rid of all harmful organisms.
The sterilized top soil is left overnight to cool. Top soil is heated for about two straight hours and continuously stirred so as to ensure uniformity.
It is then mixed in the ratio of 3:2:1 (that is three spades of top soil, two spades of sharp sand and 1 spade of compost manure).
Nitrogen in excess would lead to high vegetation and a very little uptake.
Nitrogen Induces growth.
Phosphorus Induces tuberation (that is in yam).
Potassium Induces fertilization, fruiting, and flowering.

PLANTING
Put the mixture of sterilized top soil, sharp sand and compost manure (poultry droppings) into poly-pots.
Put seeds of rough lemon into the poly-pots and water.
It takes roughly seven days for the seeds to germinate, followed next by emergence.
After about 1-2 months, it is transferred to the main nursery where it is planted (50x50x100) cm.

TRANSPLANTING
Compress poly-bag carefully together so as to ensure the roots are safe while cutting or opening the poly-pot. Put in already made nursery at (50x50x100) m.
After about three months, use a budding knife or razor to cut the scion carefully and the leaves surrounding that area off.
Use the bud wood to cut an inverted “T” on the rough lemon stalk and insert the sweet orange.
Use raffia or nylon to hold both together so as to avoid the passage of air.
Check after a week, if it is still green, it therefore indicates life.

3.5 ANIMAL SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (AST) ASPECT

PIGGERY (PIG MANAGEMENT)

TERMINOLOGIES IN PIG MANAGEMENT:
Swine: The general term used for all pigs.
Gilt: A young female that have not produced a litter.
Boar: Sexually mature male.
Sow: Female which has not furrowed yet.
Stag: A castrated Boar.
Pork: Meat gotten from pigs.
Serving: System of mating.
Farrow: Act of giving birth to piglets.
Flush feed: Feed given to female to stimulate ovulation.

CHARACTERISTICS OF PIGS:
They possess tough hair and skin.
They possess good sense of hearing.
They are active in perception.
They have gestation period of about 3 months.

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT:
Livestock management involves the integrated application of the principles of animal breeding, feeding, housing, organization and disease control in a manner suitable for a particular situation. This is also a general principle involved in raising farm animals and it includes housing, feeding, health, reproduction and disease control. In livestock management, several small jobs are done at the appropriate time and manner. Managing livestock through the age lead to the domestication of certain species of animal.

CATTLE MANAGEMENT:

Terminologies in Cattle Husbandry:
Bull: Adult male.
Cow: Adult female.
Heifer: A young female without offspring.
Bullock: A Castrated male cattle.
Beef: Meat of adult cattle.
Veal: Meat of young cattle.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATTLE:
It possesses four (4) pairs of hoofs in each limb.
It possesses large body size.
Its male and female possesses horns.
They possess four compartment stomachs.
They have ruminant that grazes on herbage and pasture.
Their puberty age ranges between 8-12 months.
The gestation period is between 283-305 days or 91/2 months.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CATTLE:
The Cattle provides much economic importance which is as follows:
Serving as source of revenue.
Helping in running research works.
Provision of massive employment.
Provision of hide and wool for textile purposes.
Provides of milk for man which is enriched with protein.

3.6 SOIL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (SST) ASPECT

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
Soil conservation practices are tools the farmer can use to prevent soil degradation and build organic matter. They include crop rotation, mulching, reduction of tillage, cover cropping, etc. Erosion is a factor of soil degradation. Erosion can be defined as the whirling away of top soil from one place to another by the wind or water.

AGENTS OF EROSION

WATER:
Water plays a major role in rock erosion since it is able to move these weathered materials from one point to another. Moving water such as currents in oceans or rivers plays a major role in erosion because they move materials from their primary source to a separate location. Erosion may discolor rivers as they snake through the valleys to oceans or seas. This is due to the huge amount of sediment deposited by the process of erosion. Once these eroded materials are settled and piled up in a new location, it is referred to as deposition. Water is also able to erode land by the effects of currents and oceans waves. Once the eroded particles as a result of ocean currents and waves are settled and deposited, they enormously change the coastline of the area.

CAUSES OF WATER EROSION:
Rain
Slope
Ground cover
Soil type
Human influence
Over cultivation
Over grazing
Wind

Wind blows away weathered particles from the source to other locations. Wind can also speed up the erosion capability of water. For instance, when a rain drop is released from the sky, it is relatively weak. The force of the wind gives it more momentum such that when it hits the surface of the earth, it is able to carry away a significant amount of particles.
Due to the effect of wind, the rain drop can travel at a speed of 32km/hr. At this breakneck speed, it is able to steadily breakdown rock material and soil, and makes erosion and transportation a lot easier. The effect of wind is usually manifested in areas that experience less or no rain or dry and barren land that is not capable of supporting vegetation. A typical example of this phenomenon is the Middle East dust bowls that took place in the course of the great depression. Wind causes erosion of rock particles driven by the soil and sand particles that are not tightly glued together and not insulated by vegetation. The carrying away of dry soil and loose sand particles is known as deflation. The action of wind continues until that time when the power and momentum of wind cannot move the loose particles.

CAUSES OF WIND EROSION:
BUSH BURNING
OVER CULTIVATION
OVER GRAZING
DEFORESTATION

TYPES OF EROSION:
SHEET EROSION
SPLASH EROSION
RILL EROSION

SHEET EROSION: Sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil by overland flow
SPLASH EROSION: Splash erosion is generally seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil thereby ejecting soil particles.
The distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0.6m (2ft) vertically and 1.5m (5ft) horizontally on level ground. If the soil is saturated, or if the rainfall rate is greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil, surface runoff occurs. If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles (sediment) down the slope.
RILL EROSION: Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hill slopes. Generally, where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Flow depths in rills are typically of the order of a few centimeters (about an inch) or less and along-channel slopes may be quite steep. This means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics very different from water flowing through the deeper, wider channels of streams and rivers.
GULLY EROSION: This occurs when runoff water accumulates and rapidly flows in narrow channels during or immediately after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth.
EFFECTS OF EROSION: Reduction of soil fertility: Top soil is always loaded with nutrients and organic matter which is aimed for the growth of crops. Repeated erosion washes away the top soil and reduces the nutrients in the soil and water infiltration into the soil, which may result to withering of crops. Damage and increased costs: Erosion leads to massive deposition of sediments on roads, and railways. This may cut off transportation lines. Costs will be incurred in regards to clearing away the deposition on the transport lines to allow transportation to resume.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Erosion leads to huge deposition of sediments into drains. This may cause drainage problems. Water sources such as rivers, streams, and lakes can be polluted through extensive inputs of pesticides, nitrogen and phosphorus.

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL:
Creation of man
It is used for anchoring plants.
In some cases, it serves for medicinal purposes.
It is used for purification.
It is used for beautification.
It is used for the construction and production of earthen pots.
Used for the production of ceramics.
Used to produce chalk.
Supply water to crops.

THE DIAGRAM OF A SOIL PROFILE
3.7 FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE (FWT) ASPECT

HELICULTURE (SNAIL FARMING)
Heliculture is the process of raising land snails specifically for human use, either to use their flesh as edible escargot or, more recently to obtain snail slime for use in cosmetics and snail eggs for human as a type of caviar.
There are various types of snail species, namely:
Archimatimaarchaina and
Archan-chantinamarginata

Their Features are as follows:
It posses round body.
It has a bigger size type of it.
It is usually black and white in color.
It is majorly found in West Africa.
It lays about 2 eggs per annum.

FEATURES OF SNAILS:
They move with a speed of 7cm per minute.
They do not like dry and sunny environment.
They belong to the Moluccas family.
They are oviparous animals.
They are nocturnal organisms.
Their period of gestation is usually 21 days.
The younger ones are called snailet or fry.

MATURITY:
For consumption purpose, it takes 3 months, but for reproduction purpose, it takes 5 months. Physically, the snails do not have eyes and ears, but they posses sensitive organs.

HOUSING:
The aim of housing snails is to keep them from running away. Snails can be reared indoors and outdoors. The paddock system is one of the most common types of housing. Inside the paddock, natural vegetation should be developed by growing shade crops such as plantain and cocoyam. The floor should be treated against rodents, termites and insects.

FEEDS:
Snails are naturally scavengers which almost eat up everything except salt and pepper. They also eat cocoyam leaves, plantain leaves etc. Snails should not be given weak leaves because they might be infected by diarrhea. Unripe pawpaw is an ideal source of food for snails. They should also be given leaf at times.

IMPORTANCE OF REARING SNAILS:
Snails are one of the best delicacies in life.
Job creation and Source of income.
They posses some aesthetic values.
They help in easy delivering of pregnant women.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0. RECOMMENDATION

In order to improve on the expected results of the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme and for progress in subsequent programmes, I want to offer the following recommendation to my Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme site, School, Industrial Training Funds and the Government:
The University management should try to encourage workers initiatives and contributions, for this will help a long way in allowing workers put on their best to enhance the efficiency of the farm.
The management should endeavour to see to workers welfare in terms of incentives to motivate them for best input. If the management can create and organize a special forum for students on attachment, this will help in discovering students potentials and to appropriately use them effectively.
The Industrial Liaison office and Students’ Departmental Supervisor(s) should endeavour to regularly visit students on site to solve some relevant problems and for adequate evaluation.
They should provide industries and organizations with incentives to encourage and solicit for their cooperation and contribution to the programme.

4.1. PERSONAL CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED

I encountered few problems during the SIWES Programme and they include:
Most times, in some sections the trainers aren’t available to coach us (the trainees) on that section which means we will end up not gaining anything for the day.
In the school hostel, no accommodation for the hostel occupants which now made most students to squat with their fellow students that stays off camp.
There was no structure made available in the farm for the students to use as protection against the scorching sun during the SIWES Programme period.
Insufficient and unavailability of implements that are needed by the students, thereby leading most students to work with bare hands which is not good.

4.2. EXPERIENCE GAINED
I learned and gathered much experience from the SIWES Programme which is as follows:
The proper handling of farm records.
How to maintain a good apiculture (Bee Keeping)
How to boycott soil erosion and the proper way to sterilize a soil.
How to erect a good working fish pond.
And also the ability to go out to the outside world and be established.

4.3. CONCLUSION

My Industrial Training helped me to know the exact difference between theoretical and practical work. During the SIWES Programme, I participated fully in the proper establishment and maintenance of the fish pond and also on the poultry section l learnt much as it broadened my horizon in the relationships with human beings. To the glory of God Almighty, this training really impacted to my life both academically, physically, intellectually, spiritually and otherwise.

4.4. REFERENCE:
The SIWES Programme was done at the FUTO FARM AND RESEARCH CENTRE.

 

Complete SIWES Technical Report For SAAT | FUTO

 

FUTO: SIWES Report Guide For IT Students